Completion engineers take on the challenge delivering the best possible return on investment when designing completions. In spite of efforts to standardize the components of the completion as much as possible (including stage length, perforating techniques, pumping schedules, etc.), operators still experience inconsistent results from well to well. This inconsistency occurs due to variability in reservoir and rock mechanical properties along a horizontal lateral, and from well to well even when they are in close proximity to one another.
Reservoir heterogeneity is the main culprit in inconsistent completion results. A better understanding of rock and reservoir properties enables operators to achieve higher production rates and more consistent results overall through adjustments to stage length and perforation placement. Drill2-Frac’s OmniLog® profile provides a characterization of rock properties and delivers important completion design information that is difficult to acquire by other means, and at a fraction of the cost.
Lateral Optimization is a collaborative effort. We work with you to better understand your challenges and cost constraints. We help recognize cost reduction and well performance improvements that can be achieved through refined staging, targeted diversion, and perforation designs that promote consistent fracture initiation.
“The Drill2Frac mechanical properties log exhibits a reasonable correlation to the calculated Young’s modulus in the Pilot well, verifying that the log is a good proxy for log-derived rock strength
– Operator in the San Andres Formation
Cost factor candidates for
- Frac equipment costs
- Auxiliary day rates
- Wireline cost
- Plug drill cost
- Cost per gun
- Diverter cost
- Diverter pump rate
- Lateral length
- Fluid volume
- Water cost
Engineering factors related to lateral optimization include:
- Number of stages
- Time per stage (frac and perforate)
- Total days on site
- Clusters per stage and perfs per cluster
- Pump rate
- Diverter employment
- Diverter type, cost, and effectiveness
- MSE standard deviation
Ideal perforation placement strategy is more than a function of rock properties. Reservoir management, cost optimization and a host of other factors must be considered. Drill2Frac’s perforation placement service consists of D2F experts working directly with our clients to design and implement a perforation placement strategy that is optimized to their individual wells and basins.
The graphic shown to the right illustrates potential engineering considerations when optimizing completion design. Stages in a lateral with relatively low heterogeneity can be longer, with greater numbers of clusters within completion stages. As heterogeneity increases, the numbers of clusters and stage length might be reduced, or diverters might be considered to avoid leaving un-stimulated sections within stages where heterogeneity is present. Pumping rates and fluid and proppant totals can be adjusted accordingly. Other considerations, such as gas detections or hydrocarbon typing from mass spectroscopy, can also be incorporated into the completion recommendation.
D2F provides an estimate of total completion cost, cost per cluster, and cost per stage. This helps ensure that production benefits are obtained without adding excessive cost. Potential benefits to operators include:
- Customization of completion designs based on rock and reservoir properties within a given well
- Possible reduction in the number of treatment stages
Successful completion optimization methods vary from basin to basin.
Technical experts often rely on logging measurements in vertical pilot wells to provide input for their horizontal well development programs. Drill2Frac offers a unique service that uses MSE to provide a correlation of facies identified in the vertical well to those encountered in horizontal laterals. Mechanical properties used in fracture models can be extracted from the vertical well and applied to the horizontal well after correlation of the MSE in the horizontal well to the measurements in the pilot well. There are benefits to this service for geoscientists, drilling staff, and completions engineers.
1. Evaluation of the landing point of the horizontal well within the vertical section along the entire length of the well.
2. Identification of reservoir structure and providing updates to models.
3. Incorporation of geomechanical properties into the completion optimization process.